CFS Policy Convergence Products Database

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The Committee on World Food Security (CFS) is the foremost inclusive international and intergovernmental platform for all stakeholders to work together to ensure food security and nutrition for all. This database provides easy access to CFS products, such as voluntary guidelines, policy recommendations and principles.

PR

Policy Recommendations

VGGT

Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests

RAI

Principles for Responsible Investment in Agriculture and Food Systems

FFA

Framework for Action for Food Security and Nutrition in Protracted Crises

RtF

Voluntary Guidelines - Right to Food

665 Résultats pour
Where it is not possible to provide legal recognition to informal tenure, States should prevent forced evictions that violate existing obligations under national and international law, and consistent with relevant provisions under Section 16.
VGGT, Year 2012
Where appropriate, States should recognize and facilitate fair and transparent sale and lease markets as a means of transfer of rights of use and ownership of land, fisheries and forests. Where markets in tenure rights operate, States should ensure that all actions are consistent with their existing obligations under national and international law, and with due regard to voluntary commitments under applicable regional and international instruments. Transactions of tenure rights to land, fisheries and forests should comply with national regulation of land use and not jeopardize core [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
States should facilitate the operations of efficient and transparent markets to promote participation under equal conditions and opportunities for mutually beneficial transfers of tenure rights which lessen conflict and instability; promote the sustainable use of land, fisheries and forests and conservation of the environment; promote the fair and equitable use of genetic resources associated with land, fisheries and forests in accordance with applicable treaties; expand economic opportunities; and increase participation by the poor. States should take measures to prevent undesirable [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
States should establish policies, laws and regulatory systems and agencies to ensure transparent and efficient market operations, to provide non-discriminatory access, and to prevent uncompetitive practices. States should simplify administrative procedures in order to avoid discouragement of market participation by the poor and the most vulnerable.
VGGT, Year 2012
States and other parties should ensure that information on market transactions and information on market values are transparent and widely publicized, subject to privacy restrictions. States should monitor this information and take action where markets have adverse impacts or discourage wide and equitable market participation.
VGGT, Year 2012
States should establish appropriate and reliable recording systems, such as land registries, that provide accessible information on tenure rights and duties in order to increase tenure security and to reduce the costs and risks of transactions.
VGGT, Year 2012
States should establish safeguards to protect the legitimate tenure rights of spouses, family members and others who are not shown as holders of tenure rights in recording systems, such as land registries.
VGGT, Year 2012
State and non-state actors should adhere to applicable ethical standards. They should publicize and monitor the implementation of these standards in the operation of markets in order to prevent corruption, particularly through public disclosure.
VGGT, Year 2012
Given the importance of small-scale producers for national food security and social stability, States should ensure that when facilitating market operations of tenure transactions, they protect the tenure rights of small-scale producers.
VGGT, Year 2012
State and non-state actors should acknowledge that responsible public and private investments are essential to improve food security. Responsible governance of tenure of land, fisheries and forests encourages tenure right holders to make responsible investments in these resources, increasing sustainable agricultural production and generating higher incomes. States should promote and support responsible investments in land, fisheries and forests that support broader social, economic and environmental objectives under a variety of farming systems. States should ensure that all actions [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
Considering that smallholder producers and their organizations in developing countries provide a major share of agricultural investments that contribute significantly to food security, nutrition, poverty eradication and environmental resilience, States should support investments by smallholders as well as public and private smallholder-sensitive investments.
VGGT, Year 2012
All forms of transactions in tenure rights as a result of investments in land, fisheries and forests should be done transparently in line with relevant national sectoral policies and be consistent with the objectives of social and economic growth and sustainable human development focusing on smallholders.
VGGT, Year 2012
Responsible investments should do no harm, safeguard against dispossession of legitimate tenure right holders and environmental damage, and should respect human rights. Such investments should be made working in partnership with relevant levels of government and local holders of tenure rights to land, fisheries and forests, respecting their legitimate tenure rights. They should strive to further contribute to policy objectives, such as poverty eradication; food security and sustainable use of land, fisheries and forests; support local communities; contribute to rural development; promote [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
States should, with appropriate consultation and participation, provide transparent rules on the scale, scope and nature of allowable transactions in tenure rights and should define what constitutes large-scale transactions in tenure rights in their national context.
VGGT, Year 2012
States should provide safeguards to protect legitimate tenure rights, human rights, livelihoods, food security and the environment from risks that could arise from large-scale transactions in tenure rights. Such safeguards could include introducing ceilings on permissible land transactions and regulating how transfers exceeding a certain scale should be approved, such as by parliamentary approval. States should consider promoting a range of production and investment models that do not result in the large-scale transfer of tenure rights to investors, and should encourage partnerships with [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
In the case of indigenous peoples and their communities, States should ensure that all actions are consistent with their existing obligations under national and international law, and with due regard to voluntary commitments under applicable regional and international instruments, including as appropriate from the International Labour Organization Convention (No 169) concerning Indigenous and Tribal Peoples in Independent Countries and the United Nations Declaration on the Rights of Indigenous Peoples. States and other parties should hold good faith consultation with indigenous peoples [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
States should determine with all affected parties, consistent with the principles of consultation and participation of these Guidelines, the conditions that promote responsible investments and then should develop and publicize policies and laws that encourage responsible investments, respect human rights, and promote food security and sustainable use of the environment. Laws should require agreements for investments to clearly define the rights and duties of all parties to the agreement. Agreements for investments should comply with national legal frameworks and investment codes.
VGGT, Year 2012
States should make provision for investments involving all forms of transactions of tenure rights, including acquisitions and partnership agreements, to be consistent with the principles of consultation and participation of these Guidelines, with those whose tenure rights, including subsidiary rights, might be affected. States and other relevant parties should inform individuals, families and communities of their tenure rights, and assist to develop their capacity in consultations and participation, including providing professional assistance as required.
VGGT, Year 2012
When investments involving large-scale transactions of tenure rights, including acquisitions and partnership agreements, are being considered, States should strive to make provisions for different parties to conduct prior independent assessments on the potential positive and negative impacts that those investments could have on tenure rights, food security and the progressive realization of the right to adequate food, livelihoods and the environment. States should ensure that existing legitimate tenure rights and claims, including those of customary and informal tenure, are [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
Contracting parties should provide comprehensive information to ensure that all relevant persons are engaged and informed in the negotiations, and should seek that the agreements are documented and understood by all who are affected. The negotiation process should be non-discriminatory and gender sensitive.
VGGT, Year 2012
Investors have the responsibility to respect national law and legislation and recognize and respect tenure rights of others and the rule of law in line with the general principle for non-state actors as contained in these Guidelines. Investments should not contribute to food insecurity and environmental degradation.
VGGT, Year 2012
Professionals who provide services to States, investors and holders of tenure rights to land, fisheries and forests should undertake due diligence to the best of their ability when providing their services, irrespective of whether it is specifically requested.
VGGT, Year 2012
States and affected parties should contribute to the effective monitoring of the implementation and impacts of agreements involving large-scale transactions in tenure rights, including acquisitions and partnership agreements. States should take corrective action where necessary to enforce agreements and protect tenure and other rights and provide mechanisms whereby aggrieved parties can request such action.
VGGT, Year 2012
When States invest or promote investments abroad, they should ensure that their conduct is consistent with the protection of legitimate tenure rights, the promotion of food security and their existing obligations under national and international law, and with due regard to voluntary commitments under applicable regional and international instruments.
VGGT, Year 2012
Where appropriate, States may consider land consolidation, exchanges or other voluntary approaches for the readjustment of parcels or holdings to assist owners and users to improve the layout and use of their parcels or holdings, including for the promotion of food security and rural development in a sustainable manner. States should ensure that all actions are consistent with their obligations under national and international law, and with due regard to voluntary commitments under applicable regional and international instruments, and ensure that participants are at least as well off [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
Where appropriate, States may consider the establishment of land banks as a part of land consolidation programmes to acquire and temporarily hold land parcels until they are allocated to beneficiaries.
VGGT, Year 2012
Where appropriate, States may consider encouraging and facilitating land consolidation and land banks in environmental protection and infrastructure projects to facilitate the acquisition of private land for such public projects, and to provide affected owners, farmers and small-scale food producers with land in compensation that will allow them to continue, and even increase, production.
VGGT, Year 2012
Where fragmentation of smallholder family farms and forests into many parcels increases production costs, States may consider land consolidation and land banks to improve the structure of those farms and forests. States should refrain from using land consolidation where fragmentation provides benefits, such as risk reduction or crop diversification. Land consolidation projects to restructure farms should be integrated with support programmes for farmers, such as the rehabilitation of irrigation systems and local roads. Measures should be developed to protect the investment of land [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
States should establish strategies for readjustment approaches that fit particular local requirements. Such strategies should be socially, economically and environmentally sustainable, and gender sensitive. Strategies should identify the principles and objectives of the readjustment approaches; the beneficiaries; and the development of capacity and knowledge in the public sector, the private sector, organizations of farmers and small-scale producers, of fishers, and of forest users, and academia. Laws should establish clear and cost-effective procedures for the reorganization of parcels [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
States should establish appropriate safeguards in projects using readjustment approaches. Any individuals, communities or peoples likely to be affected by a project should be contacted and provided with sufficient information in applicable languages. Technical and legal support should be provided. Participatory and gender-sensitive approaches should be used taking into account rights of indigenous peoples. Environmental safeguards should be established to prevent or minimize degradation and loss of biodiversity and reward changes that foster good land management, best practices and [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
Where appropriate, considering their national context, States should consider providing restitution for the loss of legitimate tenure rights to land, fisheries and forests. States should ensure that all actions are consistent with their existing obligations under national and international law, and with due regard to voluntary commitments under applicable regional and international instruments.
VGGT, Year 2012
Where possible, the original parcels or holdings should be returned to those who suffered the loss, or their heirs, by resolution of the competent national authorities. Where the original parcel or holding cannot be returned, states should provide prompt and just compensation in the form of money and/or alternative parcels or holdings, ensuring equitable treatment of all affected people.
VGGT, Year 2012
Where appropriate, the concerns of indigenous peoples regarding restitution should be addressed in the national context and in accordance with national law and legislation.
VGGT, Year 2012
States should develop gender-sensitive policies and laws that provide for clear, transparent processes for restitution. Information on restitution procedures should be widely disseminated in applicable languages. Claimants should be provided with adequate assistance, including through legal and paralegal aid, throughout the process. States should ensure that restitution claims are promptly processed. Where necessary, successful claimants should be provided with support services so that they can enjoy their tenure rights and fulfil their duties. Progress of implementation should be widely [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
Redistributive reforms can facilitate broad and equitable access to land and inclusive rural development. In this regard, where appropriate under national contexts, States may consider allocation of public land, voluntary and market based mechanisms as well as expropriation of private land, fisheries or forests for a public purpose.
VGGT, Year 2012
States may consider land ceilings as a policy option in the context of implementing redistributive reforms.
VGGT, Year 2012
In the national context and in accordance with national law and legislation, redistributive reforms may be considered for social, economic and environmental reasons, among others, where a high degree of ownership concentration is combined with a significant level of rural poverty attributable to lack of access to land, fisheries and forests respecting, in line with the provisions of Section 15, the rights of all legitimate tenure holders. Redistributive reforms should guarantee equal access of men and women to land, fisheries and forests.
VGGT, Year 2012
Where States choose to implement redistributive reforms, they should ensure that the reforms are consistent with their obligations under national and international law, and voluntary commitments under applicable regional and international instruments. Reforms should follow the rule of law and be implemented according to national laws and procedures. States should facilitate the development of consultations, consistent with the principles of these Guidelines, on the redistribution, including balancing the needs of all parties, and on the approaches to be used. Partnerships between the [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
Where States choose to implement redistributive reforms, they should clearly define the objectives of reform programmes and indicate land exempted from such redistribution. The intended beneficiaries, such as families including those seeking homegardens, women, informal settlement residents, pastoralists, historically disadvantaged groups, marginalized groups, youth, indigenous peoples, gatherers and small-scale food producers, should be clearly defined.
VGGT, Year 2012
Where States choose to implement redistributive reforms, they should develop policies and laws, through participatory processes, to make them sustainable. States should ensure that policies and laws assist beneficiaries, whether communities, families or individuals, to earn an adequate standard of living from the land, fisheries and forests they acquire and ensure equal treatment of men and women in redistributive reforms. States should revise policies that might inhibit the achievement and sustainability of the intended effects of the redistributive reforms.
VGGT, Year 2012
When redistributive reforms are being considered, States may, if so desired, conduct assessments on the potential positive and negative impacts that those reforms could have on tenure rights, food security and the progressive realization of the right to adequate food, livelihoods and the environment. This assessment process should be conducted consistent with the principles of consultation and participation of these Guidelines. Assessments may be used as a basis to determine the measures needed to support beneficiaries and improve the redistributive programme.
VGGT, Year 2012
States should ensure that redistributive land reform programmes provide the full measure of support required by beneficiaries, such as access to credit, crop insurance, inputs, markets, technical assistance in rural extension, farm development and housing. The provision of support services should be coordinated with the movement on the land by the beneficiaries. The full costs of land reforms, including costs of support services, should be identified in advance and included in relevant budgets.
VGGT, Year 2012
States should implement redistributive reforms through transparent, participatory and accountable approaches and procedures. All affected parties should be accorded with due process and just compensation according to national law and the provisions of Section 16. All affected parties, including disadvantaged groups, should receive full and clear information on the reforms, including through gender-targeted messages. Beneficiaries should be selected through open processes, and they should receive secure tenure rights that are publicly recorded. Access to means of resolving disputes should [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
States, with the participation of the involved parties, should monitor and evaluate the outcomes of redistributive reform programmes, including associated support policies, as listed in paragraph 15.8, and their impacts on access to land and food security of both men and women and, where necessary, States should introduce corrective measures.
VGGT, Year 2012
Subject to their national law and legislation and in accordance with national context, States should expropriate only where rights to land, fisheries or forests are required for a public purpose. States should clearly define the concept of public purpose in law, in order to allow for judicial review. States should ensure that all actions are consistent with their national law as well as their existing obligations under national and international law, and with due regard to voluntary commitments under applicable regional and international instruments. They should respect all legitimate [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
States should ensure that the planning and process for expropriation are transparent and participatory. Anyone likely to be affected should be identified, and properly informed and consulted at all stages. Consultations, consistent with the principles of these Guidelines, should provide information regarding possible alternative approaches to achieve the public purpose, and should have regard to strategies to minimize disruption of livelihoods. States should be sensitive where proposed expropriations involve areas of particular cultural, religious or environmental significance, or where [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
States should ensure a fair valuation and prompt compensation in accordance with national law. Among other forms, the compensation may be, for example, in cash, rights to alternative areas, or a combination.
VGGT, Year 2012
To the extent that resources permit, States should ensure that implementing agencies have the human, physical, financial and other forms of capacity.
VGGT, Year 2012
Where the land, fisheries and forests are not needed due to changes of plans, States should give the original right holders the first opportunity to re-acquire these resources. In such a case the re-acquisition should take into consideration the amount of compensation received in return for the expropriation.
VGGT, Year 2012
All parties should endeavour to prevent corruption, particularly through use of objectively assessed values, transparent and decentralized processes and services, and a right to appeal.
VGGT, Year 2012
Where evictions are considered to be justified for a public purpose as a result of expropriation of land, fisheries and forests, States should conduct such evictions and treat all affected parties in a manner consistent with their relevant obligations to respect, protect, and fulfil human rights.
VGGT, Year 2012
States should, prior to eviction or shift in land use which could result in depriving individuals and communities from access to their productive resources, explore feasible alternatives in consultation with the affected parties, consistent with the principles of these Guidelines, with a view to avoiding, or at least minimizing, the need to resort to evictions.
VGGT, Year 2012
Evictions and relocations should not result in individuals being rendered homeless or vulnerable to the violation of human rights. Where those affected are unable to provide for themselves, States should, to the extent that resources permit, take appropriate measures to provide adequate alternative housing, resettlement or access to productive land, fisheries and forests, as the case may be.
VGGT, Year 2012
States should provide systems (such as registration, cadastre and licensing systems) to record individual and collective tenure rights in order to improve security of tenure rights, including those held by the State and public sector, private sector, and indigenous peoples and other communities with customary tenure systems; and for the functioning of local societies and of markets. Such systems should record, maintain and publicize tenure rights and duties, including who holds those rights and duties, and the parcels or holdings of land, fisheries or forests to which the rights and [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
States should provide recording systems appropriate for their particular circumstances, including the available human and financial resources. Socio-culturally appropriate ways of recording rights of indigenous peoples and other communities with customary tenure systems should be developed and used. In order to enhance transparency and compatibility with other sources of information for spatial planning and other purposes, each State should strive to develop an integrated framework that includes existing recording systems and other spatial information systems. In each jurisdiction, [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
States should strive to ensure that everyone is able to record their tenure rights and obtain information without discrimination on any basis. Where appropriate, implementing agencies, such as land registries, should establish service centres or mobile offices, having regard to accessibility by women, the poor and vulnerable groups. States should consider using locally-based professionals, such as lawyers, notaries, surveyors and social scientists to deliver information on tenure rights to the public.
VGGT, Year 2012
Implementing agencies should adopt simplified procedures and locally suitable technology to reduce the costs and time required for delivering services. The spatial accuracy for parcels and other spatial units should be sufficient for their identification to meet local needs, with increased spatial accuracy being provided if required over time. To facilitate the use of records of tenure rights, implementing agencies should link information on the rights, the holders of those rights, and the spatial units related to those rights. Records should be indexed by spatial units as well as by [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
States should ensure that information on tenure rights is easily available to all, subject to privacy restrictions. Such restrictions should not unnecessarily prevent public scrutiny to identify corrupt and illegal transactions. States and non-state actors should further endeavour to prevent corruption in the recording of tenure rights by widely publicizing processes, requirements, fees and any exemptions, and deadlines for responses to service requests.
VGGT, Year 2012
States should ensure that appropriate systems are used for the fair and timely valuation of tenure rights for specific purposes, such as operation of markets, security for loans, transactions in tenure rights as a result of investments, expropriation and taxation. Such systems should promote broader social, economic, environmental and sustainable development objectives.
VGGT, Year 2012
Policies and laws related to valuation should strive to ensure that valuation systems take into account non-market values, such as social, cultural, religious, spiritual and environmental values where applicable.
VGGT, Year 2012

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