CFS Policy Convergence Products Database - CFS Policy Convergence Products Database
The Committee on World Food Security (CFS) is the foremost inclusive international and intergovernmental platform for all stakeholders to work together to ensure food security and nutrition for all. This database provides easy access to CFS products, such as voluntary guidelines, policy recommendations and principles.
CFS Products Legend
Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests
Principles for Responsible Investment in Agriculture and Food Systems
Framework for Action for Food Security and Nutrition in Protracted Crises
Voluntary Guidelines - Right to Food
Voluntary Guidelines on Food Systems and Nutrition
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R&D, as appropriate, should strengthen capabilities to adapt biofuel production and processing units so that they can modulate their supply chain between food, feed and energy.
foster integrated programmes which directly support agricultural livelihoods and productivity for the poor, particularly smallholder farmers and small-scale food producers, including through production input support, weather, crop and livestock insurance, farmer organizations and co-operatives for market access, decent jobs and public works that create agricultural assets, home-grown school feeding that purchases food from local smallholder farmers, in-kind transfers (food, seeds), vouchers and cash transfers, agricultural livelihood packages and extension services
priority should be given to social protection that addresses the critical 'first 1,000 days' from pregnancy to 2 years old, including policies that promote and support breastfeeding, ensuring access to social services particularly health care, ensuring adequate knowledge of all relevant aspects of child care, and access to affordable and acceptable nutritious food products through the marketplace where possible, appropriate and sustainable;
ensure particular challenges faced by least developed countries, fragile states and countries in protracted crises, including linkages between short-term social transfers and longer term social protection programmes, take into account the role of international cooperation in reinforcing national actions to implement sustainable social protection programmes and systems;
establish strong linkages amongst sectors such as education, health and agriculture to ensure decent employment and social welfare in rural and urban areas, including enhancing people' access, especially women, to markets and financial services required for effective social protection
ensure that social protection systems embrace a ""twin-track"" strategy to maximize impact on resilience and food security and nutrition, through provision of essential assistance in the short-term while simultaneously protecting or building productive assets and infrastructure that support livelihoods and human development in the long-term;
provide predictable and reliable access to social protection to all those in need at any time of the year, and at particularly vulnerable stages of life; (recognizing) that chronically vulnerable individuals, unable to participate in the workforce, might need permanent assistance, recognizing that not everyone can graduate out of poverty and food insecurity
strengthen the various components of effective social protection, including non-contributory social transfers or safety nets, insurance mechanisms, and access to social services, including recognition and strengthening of informal/ traditional social protection mechanisms.
ensure the provision of technical, financial and capacity building support, and also conducting and sharing of research results on social protection, including through enhanced South-South cooperation.
improve the design and use of social protection interventions to address vulnerability to chronic and acute food insecurity, considering:
Review biofuels policies - where applicable and if necessary - according to balanced science-based assessments of the opportunities and challenges they may present for food security so that biofuels can be produced where it is socially, economically and environmentally feasible to do so. In line with this, mandate the HLPE, with full consideration of resources and other CFS priorities, to conduct a science-based comparative literature analysis, taking into consideration the work produced by the FAO and Global Bioenergy Partnership (GBEP), of the positive and negative effects of biofuels on food security to be presented to CFS;
Increase the role of the state, where appropriate, to mitigate the negative impacts of volatility, including through the development of stable, long term national social protection strategies and safety nets, particularly addressing vulnerable categories of populations such as women and children, that can be leveraged and scaled-up in times of crisis. Reiterate, in this context, the mandate for a HLPE study on the matter, requesting its presentation to the 38th Session of CFS;
Noting that a transparent and predictable international trade in food is crucial for reducing excessive price volatility and maintaining focus on building an accountable and rules-based multilateral trading system taking into account food security concerns, in particular those of the Least Developed and Net Food Importing Developing Countries. In that context, support an ambitious, balanced and comprehensive conclusion of the Doha Development Round in accordance with its mandate;
Endorse efforts requested by the G20 for WFP and other international organizations and partners (such as the Economic Community of West African States - ECOWAS) and West African countries, to support the development of a pilot project in West Africa, for a targeted regional emergency humanitarian food reserve, consistent with Annex 2 of the WTO Agreement on Agriculture;
Recommend the use of national and local social safety nets and local purchase mechanisms, whenever appropriate, for the delivery of food aid, while taking time, market, production, institutional and other relevant factors into account, in accordance with the rules of the multilateral trading system;
Acknowledging the need for countries to better coordinate responses in times of food price crises, support the establishment of the AMIS Rapid Response Forum and request the CFS Bureau to ensure appropriate links between that Forum and CFS;
Request that the international organizations, in consultation with other relevant stakeholders, develop a framework for a draft voluntary code of conduct for emergency humanitarian food reserves management, for further consideration by CFS;
Request relevant international organizations, in consultation with all relevant stakeholders, to further assess the constraints and effectiveness of local, national and regional food reserves;
Improve transparency, regulation and supervision of agricultural derivative markets;
Responsible investment in agriculture and food systems contributes to sustainable and inclusive economic development and poverty eradication by: i) Respecting the fundamental principles and rights at work, especially those of agricultural and food workers, as defined in the ILO core conventions; ii) Supporting the effective implementation of other international labour standards, where applicable, giving particular attention to standards relevant to the agri-food sector and the elimination of the worst forms of child labour; iii) Creating new jobs and fostering decent work through [...]
Responsible investment in agriculture and food systems supports States' obligations regarding the progressive realization of the right to adequate food in the context of national food security, and all intended users' responsibility to respect human rights. Responsible investment in agriculture and food systems contributes to food security and nutrition, particularly for the most vulnerable, at the household, local, national, regional, or global level, and to eradicating poverty through: i) Increasing sustainable production and productivity of safe, nutritious, diverse, and culturally [...]
Responsible investment in agriculture and food systems fosters gender equality and women's empowerment by: i) Ensuring that all people are treated fairly, recognizing their respective situations, needs, constraints, and the vital role played by women; ii) Eliminating all measures and practices that discriminate or violate rights on the basis of gender; iii) Advancing women's equal tenure rights, and their equal access to and control over productive land, natural resources, inputs, productive tools; and promoting access to extension, advisory, and financial services, education, training, [...]
requests the HLPE to undertake studies, to be presented at the 37th Session of the CFS, on the following important issues, in accordance with the CFS reform document agreed in 2009, and the Rules and Procedures for the work of the HLPE: the respective roles of large-scale plantations and of small-scale farming, including economic, social, gender and environmental impacts; review of the existing tools allowing the mapping of available land; comparative analysis of tools to align large scale investments with country food security strategies;
Responsible investment in agriculture and food systems engages and empowers youth by: i) Advancing their access to productive land, natural resources, inputs, productive tools, extension, advisory, and financial services, education, training, markets, information, and inclusion in decision-making; ii) Providing appropriate training, education, and mentorship programs for youth to increase their capacity and/or access to decent work and entrepreneurship opportunities, and foster their contribution to local development; iii) Promoting development and access to innovation and new [...]
encourages the continuation of the inclusive process for the development of the Voluntary Guidelines (Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land and Other Natural Resources ' VG) building on existing regional processes with a view to submitting the guidelines for the consideration of the 37th session of CFS and decided to establish an open-ended working group of the CFS to review the first draft of the voluntary guidelines;
It requested the Bureau, in consultation with the Advisory Group and joint Secretariat, as well as with relevant international organizations, in particular World Health Organization (WHO) and United Nations Children's Fund (UNICEF), to propose options on the meaning and different uses, if any, of the terms 'Food Security', 'Food Security and Nutrition', 'Food and Nutrition Security' and 'Nutrition Security' to the CFS Session for the standardization of the official terminology that the Committee should use taking into account that nutrition is a key pillar of 'Food Security' as officially defined.
urges governments and other stakeholders involved in the drafting process of both the VG and the RAI to ensure consistency and complementarity between the two processes;
encouraged member state support for capacity building toward effectively addressing land governance.
These principles of implementation are essential to contribute to responsible governance of tenure of land, fisheries and forests. 1) Human dignity: recognizing the inherent dignity and the equal and inalienable human rights of all individuals. 2) Non-discrimination: no one should be subject to discrimination under law and policies as well as in practice. 3) Equity and justice: recognizing that equality between individuals may require acknowledging differences between individuals, and taking positive action, including empowerment, in order to promote equitable tenure rights and access to [...]
3.1- States should: 1) Recognize and respect all legitimate tenure right holders and their rights. They should take reasonable measures to identify, record and respect legitimate tenure right holders and their rights, whether formally recorded or not; to refrain from infringement of tenure rights of others; and to meet the duties associated with tenure rights. 2) Safeguard legitimate tenure rights against threats and infringements. They should protect tenure right holders against the arbitrary loss of their tenure rights, including forced evictions that are inconsistent with their [...]
Based on an examination of tenure rights in line with national law, States should provide legal recognition for legitimate tenure rights not currently protected by law. Policies and laws that ensure tenure rights should be non-discriminatory and gender sensitive. Consistent with the principles of consultation and participation of these Guidelines, States should define through widely publicized rules the categories of rights that are considered legitimate. All forms of tenure should provide all persons with a degree of tenure security which guarantees legal protection against forced [...]
All parties should recognize that no tenure right, including private ownership, is absolute. All tenure rights are limited by the rights of others and by the measures taken by States necessary for public purposes. Such measures should be determined by law, solely for the purpose of promoting general welfare including environmental protection and consistent with States' human rights obligations. Tenure rights are also balanced by duties. All should respect the long-term protection and sustainable use of land, fisheries and forests.
States should remove and prohibit all forms of discrimination related to tenure rights, including those resulting from change of marital status, lack of legal capacity, and lack of access to economic resources. In particular, States should ensure equal tenure rights for women and men, including the right to inherit and bequeath these rights. Such State actions should be consistent with their existing obligations under relevant national law and legislation and international law, and with due regard to voluntary commitments under applicable regional and international instruments.
States should strive to ensure responsible governance of tenure because land, fisheries and forests are central for the realization of human rights, food security, poverty eradication, sustainable livelihoods, social stability, housing security, rural development, and social and economic growth.
States should consider providing non-discriminatory and gender-sensitive assistance where people are unable through their own actions to acquire tenure rights to sustain themselves, to gain access to the services of implementing agencies and judicial authorities, or to participate in processes that could affect their tenure rights.
States should ensure that all actions regarding tenure and its governance are consistent with their existing obligations under national and international law, and with due regard to voluntary commitments under applicable regional and international instruments.
States should protect legitimate tenure rights, and ensure that people are not arbitrarily evicted and that their legitimate tenure rights are not otherwise extinguished or infringed.
States should ensure that women and men enjoy the same rights in the newly recognized tenure rights, and that those rights are reflected in records. Where possible, legal recognition and allocation of tenure rights of individuals, families and communities should be done systematically, progressing area by area in accordance with national priorities, in order to provide the poor and vulnerable with full opportunities to acquire legal recognition of their tenure rights. Legal support should be provided, particularly to the poor and vulnerable. Locally appropriate approaches should be used [...]
Where States intend to recognize or allocate tenure rights, they should first identify all existing tenure rights and right holders, whether recorded or not. Indigenous peoples and other communities with customary tenure systems, smallholders and anyone else who could be affected should be included in the consultation process, consistent with paragraphs 3B.6 and 9.9. States should provide access to justice, consistent with paragraph 4.9 if people believe their tenure rights are not recognized.
When States recognize or allocate tenure rights to land, fisheries and forests, they should establish, in accordance with national laws, safeguards to avoid infringing on or extinguishing tenure rights of others, including legitimate tenure rights that are not currently protected by law. In particular, safeguards should protect women and the vulnerable who hold subsidiary tenure rights, such as gathering rights.
States should ensure that people whose tenure rights are recognized or who are allocated new tenure rights have full knowledge of their rights and also their duties. Where necessary, States should provide support to such people so that they can enjoy their tenure rights and fulfil their duties.
States and non-state actors should endeavour to prevent corruption with regard to tenure rights. States should do so particularly through consultation and participation, rule of law, transparency and accountability. States should adopt and enforce anti-corruption measures including applying checks and balances, limiting the arbitrary use of power, addressing conflicts of interest and adopting clear rules and regulations. States should provide for the administrative and/or judicial review of decisions of implementing agencies. Staff working on the administration of tenure should be held [...]
States should ensure that all actions regarding the legal recognition and allocation of tenure rights and duties are consistent with their existing obligations under national and international law, and with due regard to voluntary commitments under applicable regional and international instruments.
Where it is not possible to provide legal recognition of tenure rights, States should prevent forced evictions that are inconsistent with their existing obligations under national and international law, and in accordance with the principles of these Guidelines.
States should encourage implementing agencies and judicial authorities to foster a culture based on service and ethical behaviour. Agencies and judicial authorities should seek regular feedback, such as through surveys and focus groups, to raise standards and improve delivery of services, to meet expectations, and to satisfy new needs. They should publish performance standards and report regularly on results. Users should have means of addressing complaints either within the implementing agency, such as by administrative review, or externally, such as by an independent review or through [...]
Relevant professional associations for services related to tenure should develop, publicize and monitor the implementation of high levels of ethical behaviour. Public and private sector parties should adhere to applicable ethical standards, and be subject to disciplinary action in case of violations. Where such associations do not exist, States should ensure an environment conducive to their establishment.
States should facilitate the operations of efficient and transparent markets to promote participation under equal conditions and opportunities for mutually beneficial transfers of tenure rights which lessen conflict and instability; promote the sustainable use of land, fisheries and forests and conservation of the environment; promote the fair and equitable use of genetic resources associated with land, fisheries and forests in accordance with applicable treaties; expand economic opportunities; and increase participation by the poor. States should take measures to prevent undesirable [...]
Where appropriate, States should recognize and facilitate fair and transparent sale and lease markets as a means of transfer of rights of use and ownership of land, fisheries and forests. Where markets in tenure rights operate, States should ensure that all actions are consistent with their existing obligations under national and international law, and with due regard to voluntary commitments under applicable regional and international instruments. Transactions of tenure rights to land, fisheries and forests should comply with national regulation of land use and not jeopardize core [...]
States should establish policies, laws and regulatory systems and agencies to ensure transparent and efficient market operations, to provide non-discriminatory access, and to prevent uncompetitive practices. States should simplify administrative procedures in order to avoid discouragement of market participation by the poor and the most vulnerable.
Where it is not possible to provide legal recognition to informal tenure, States should prevent forced evictions that violate existing obligations under national and international law, and consistent with relevant provisions under Section 16.
States and other parties should ensure that information on market transactions and information on market values are transparent and widely publicized, subject to privacy restrictions. States should monitor this information and take action where markets have adverse impacts or discourage wide and equitable market participation.
State and non-state actors should adhere to applicable ethical standards. They should publicize and monitor the implementation of these standards in the operation of markets in order to prevent corruption, particularly through public disclosure.
States should establish appropriate and reliable recording systems, such as land registries, that provide accessible information on tenure rights and duties in order to increase tenure security and to reduce the costs and risks of transactions.
States should endeavour to prevent corruption, particularly through increasing transparency, holding decision-makers accountable, and ensuring that impartial decisions are delivered promptly.
States should establish safeguards to protect the legitimate tenure rights of spouses, family members and others who are not shown as holders of tenure rights in recording systems, such as land registries.
Where States choose to implement redistributive reforms, they should ensure that the reforms are consistent with their obligations under national and international law, and voluntary commitments under applicable regional and international instruments. Reforms should follow the rule of law and be implemented according to national laws and procedures. States should facilitate the development of consultations, consistent with the principles of these Guidelines, on the redistribution, including balancing the needs of all parties, and on the approaches to be used. Partnerships between the [...]
States should implement redistributive reforms through transparent, participatory and accountable approaches and procedures. All affected parties should be accorded with due process and just compensation according to national law and the provisions of Section 16. All affected parties, including disadvantaged groups, should receive full and clear information on the reforms, including through gender-targeted messages. Beneficiaries should be selected through open processes, and they should receive secure tenure rights that are publicly recorded. Access to means of resolving disputes should [...]
Where States choose to implement redistributive reforms, they should clearly define the objectives of reform programmes and indicate land exempted from such redistribution. The intended beneficiaries, such as families including those seeking homegardens, women, informal settlement residents, pastoralists, historically disadvantaged groups, marginalized groups, youth, indigenous peoples, gatherers and small-scale food producers, should be clearly defined.
In the national context and in accordance with national law and legislation, redistributive reforms may be considered for social, economic and environmental reasons, among others, where a high degree of ownership concentration is combined with a significant level of rural poverty attributable to lack of access to land, fisheries and forests respecting, in line with the provisions of Section 15, the rights of all legitimate tenure holders. Redistributive reforms should guarantee equal access of men and women to land, fisheries and forests.
Where States choose to implement redistributive reforms, they should develop policies and laws, through participatory processes, to make them sustainable. States should ensure that policies and laws assist beneficiaries, whether communities, families or individuals, to earn an adequate standard of living from the land, fisheries and forests they acquire and ensure equal treatment of men and women in redistributive reforms. States should revise policies that might inhibit the achievement and sustainability of the intended effects of the redistributive reforms.