CFS Policy Convergence Products Database

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The Committee on World Food Security (CFS) is the foremost inclusive international and intergovernmental platform for all stakeholders to work together to ensure food security and nutrition for all. This database provides easy access to CFS products, such as voluntary guidelines, policy recommendations and principles.

PR

Policy Recommendations

VGGT

Voluntary Guidelines on the Responsible Governance of Tenure of Land, Fisheries, and Forests

RAI

Principles for Responsible Investment in Agriculture and Food Systems

FFA

Framework for Action for Food Security and Nutrition in Protracted Crises

RtF

Voluntary Guidelines - Right to Food

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States should develop policies and laws that encourage and require transparency in valuing tenure rights. Sale prices and other relevant information should be recorded, analysed and made accessible to provide a basis for accurate and reliable assessments of values.
VGGT, Year 2012
States and other parties should develop and publicize national standards for valuation for governmental, commercial and other purposes. National standards should be consistent with relevant international standards. Training of staff should include methodologies and international standards.
VGGT, Year 2012
Implementing agencies should make their valuation information and analyses available to the public in accordance with national standards. States should endeavour to prevent corruption in valuation through transparency of information and methodologies, in public resource administration and compensation, and in company accounts and lending.
VGGT, Year 2012
States have the power to raise revenue through taxation related to tenure rights so as to contribute to the achievement of their broader social, economic and environmental objectives. These objectives may include encouraging investment or preventing undesirable impacts that may arise, such as from speculation and concentration of ownership or other tenure rights. Taxes should encourage socially, economically and environmentally desirable behaviour, such as registering transactions or declaring the full sale value.
VGGT, Year 2012
States should strive to develop policies, laws and organizational frameworks for regulating all aspects pertaining to taxation of tenure rights. Tax policies and laws should be used where appropriate to provide for effective financing for decentralized levels of government and local provision of services and infrastructure.
VGGT, Year 2012
States should administer taxes efficiently and transparently. Staff of implementing agencies should receive training that includes methodologies. Taxes should be based on appropriate values. Assessments of valuations and taxable amounts should be made public. States should provide taxpayers with a right to appeal against valuations. States should endeavour to prevent corruption in taxation administration, through increased transparency in the use of objectively assessed values.
VGGT, Year 2012
Regulated spatial planning affects tenure rights by legally constraining their use. States should conduct regulated spatial planning, and monitor and enforce compliance with those plans, including balanced and sustainable territorial development, in a way that promotes the objectives of these Guidelines. In this regard, spatial planning should reconcile and harmonize different objectives of the use of land, fisheries and forests.
VGGT, Year 2012
States should develop through consultation and participation, and publicize, gender-sensitive policies and laws on regulated spatial planning. Where appropriate, formal planning systems should consider methods of planning and territorial development used by indigenous peoples and other communities with customary tenure systems, and decision-making processes within those communities.
VGGT, Year 2012
States should ensure that regulated spatial planning is conducted in a manner that recognizes the interconnected relationships between land, fisheries and forests and their uses, including the gendered aspects of their uses. States should strive towards reconciling and prioritizing public, community and private interests and accommodate the requirements for various uses, such as rural, agricultural, nomadic, urban and environmental. Spatial planning should consider all tenure rights, including overlapping and periodic rights. Appropriate risk assessments for spatial planning should be [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
States should ensure that there is wide public participation in the development of planning proposals and the review of draft spatial plans to ensure that priorities and interests of communities, including indigenous peoples and food-producing communities, are reflected. Where necessary, communities should be provided with support during the planning process. Implementing agencies should disclose how public input from participation was reflected in the final spatial plans. States should endeavour to prevent corruption by establishing safeguards against improper use of spatial planning [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
Spatial planning should take duly into account the need to promote diversified sustainable management of land, fisheries and forests, including agro-ecological approaches and sustainable intensification, and to meet the challenges of climate change and food security.
VGGT, Year 2012
States should provide access through impartial and competent judicial and administrative bodies to timely, affordable and effective means of resolving disputes over tenure rights, including alternative means of resolving such disputes, and should provide effective remedies and a right to appeal. Such remedies should be promptly enforced. States should make available, to all, mechanisms to avoid or resolve potential disputes at the preliminary stage, either within the implementing agency or externally. Dispute resolution services should be accessible to all, women and men, in terms of [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
States may consider introducing specialized tribunals or bodies that deal solely with disputes over tenure rights, and creating expert positions within the judicial authorities to deal with technical matters. States may also consider special tribunals to deal with disputes over regulated spatial planning, surveys and valuation.
VGGT, Year 2012
States should strengthen and develop alternative forms of dispute resolution, especially at the local level. Where customary or other established forms of dispute settlement exist they should provide for fair, reliable, accessible and non-discriminatory ways of promptly resolving disputes over tenure rights.
VGGT, Year 2012
States may consider using implementing agencies to resolve disputes within their technical expertise, such as those responsible for surveying to resolve boundary disputes between individual parcels within national contexts. Decisions should be delivered in writing and based on objective reasoning, and there should be a right to appeal to the judicial authorities.
VGGT, Year 2012
States should endeavour to prevent corruption in dispute resolution processes.
VGGT, Year 2012
In providing dispute resolution mechanisms, States should strive to provide legal assistance to vulnerable and marginalized persons to ensure safe access for all to justice without discrimination. Judicial authorities and other bodies should ensure that their staff have the necessary skills and competencies to provide such services.
VGGT, Year 2012
States should cooperate, in the framework of appropriate mechanisms and with the participation of affected parties, in addressing tenure issues related to land, fisheries and forests which traverse national boundaries. States should ensure that all actions are consistent with their existing obligations under national and international law, and with due regard to voluntary commitments under applicable regional and international instruments. In States where transboundary matters related to tenure rights arise, parties should work together to protect such tenure rights, livelihoods and food [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
States and other parties should contribute to the understanding of transboundary tenure issues affecting communities, such as with rangelands or seasonal migration routes of pastoralists, and fishing grounds of small-scale fishers, which lie across international boundaries.
VGGT, Year 2012
Where appropriate, States should harmonize legal standards of tenure governance, in accordance with existing obligations under national and international law, and with due regard to voluntary commitments under applicable regional and international instruments. Where appropriate, this should be coordinated with relevant regional bodies and with affected parties. States, with the participation of the affected parties as appropriate, should develop or strengthen existing international measures to administer tenure rights that cross international boundaries. Where appropriate, they should [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
States should ensure that the legitimate tenure rights to land, fisheries and forests of all individuals, communities or peoples likely to be affected, with an emphasis on farmers, small-scale food producers, and vulnerable and marginalized people, are respected and protected by laws, policies, strategies and actions with the aim to prevent and respond to the effects of climate change consistent with their respective obligations, as applicable, in terms of relevant climate change framework agreements.
VGGT, Year 2012
Where appropriate, States should strive to prepare and implement strategies and actions in consultation and with the participation of all people, women and men, who may be displaced due to climate change. Any provision of alternative land, fisheries, forests and livelihoods for displaced persons should not jeopardize the livelihoods of others. States may also consider offering special assistance to small island and other developing states.
VGGT, Year 2012
States should facilitate the participation, consistent with the principles of consultation and participation of these Guidelines, of all individuals, communities or peoples, with an emphasis on farmers, small-scale food producers, and vulnerable and marginalized people, who hold legitimate tenure rights, in the negotiations and implementation of mitigation and adaptation programmes.
VGGT, Year 2012
All parties should ensure that tenure aspects of land, fisheries and forests are addressed when preventing and preparing for natural disasters and in their responses to them. Regulatory frameworks for tenure, including spatial planning, should be designed to avoid or minimize the potential impacts of natural disasters.
VGGT, Year 2012
States should ensure that all actions are consistent with their existing obligations under national and international law, and with due regard to voluntary commitments under applicable regional and international instruments. All parties should act, taking into consideration relevant international principles, including as appropriate the United Nations Principles on Housing and Property Restitution for Refugees and Displaced Persons ('Pinheiro Principles'), and the Humanitarian Charter and Minimum Standards in Disaster Response.
VGGT, Year 2012
States should address tenure in disaster prevention and preparedness programmes. Information on legitimate tenure rights should be collected for areas that could be affected through a process consistent with the principles of consultation and participation of these Guidelines. Systems for recording legitimate tenure rights should be resilient to natural disasters, including off-site storage of records, to allow right holders to prove their rights and relocate their parcels and other spatial units. States should strive to identify areas for the temporary resettlement of people who could [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
States and other parties should address tenure in the emergency response phase. Any provision of alternative land, fisheries, forests and livelihoods for displaced persons should not jeopardize the rights and livelihoods of others. Legitimate tenure rights of displaced persons should also be recognized, respected and protected. Information on tenure rights and unauthorized use should be disseminated to all affected persons.
VGGT, Year 2012
States and other parties should address tenure during the reconstruction phase. Persons who are temporarily displaced should be assisted in voluntarily, safely and with dignity returning to their place of origin. Means to resolve disputes over tenure rights should be provided. Where boundaries of parcels and other spatial units are to be re-established, this should be done consistent with the principles of consultation and participation of these Guidelines. Where people are unable to return to their place of origin, they should be permanently resettled elsewhere. Such resettlement should [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
All parties should take steps to prevent and eliminate issues of tenure of land, fisheries and forests as a cause of conflict and should ensure that aspects of tenure are addressed before, during and after conflict, including in situations of occupation where parties should act in accordance with applicable international humanitarian law.
VGGT, Year 2012
States should ensure that all actions are consistent with their existing obligations under national and international law, and with due regard to voluntary commitments under applicable regional and international instruments, including as appropriate those of the Convention relating to the Status of Refugees and its Protocol, and the United Nations Principles on Housing and Property Restitution for Refugees and Displaced Persons ('Pinheiro Principles'). During and after conflicts States should respect applicable international humanitarian law related to legitimate tenure rights.
VGGT, Year 2012
In order that tenure problems do not lead to conflicts, all parties should take steps to resolve such problems through peaceful means. States should revise relevant policies and laws to eliminate discrimination and other factors that can be a cause of conflicts. Where appropriate, States may consider using customary and other local mechanisms that provide fair, reliable, gender-sensitive, accessible and non-discriminatory ways of promptly resolving disputes over tenure rights to land, fisheries and forests.
VGGT, Year 2012
When conflicts arise, States and other parties should strive to respect and protect existing legitimate tenure rights and guarantee that these are not extinguished by other parties. Consistent with existing obligations under relevant national and international law, States should not recognize tenure rights to land, fisheries and forests acquired, within their territories, through forceful and/or violent means. Refugees and displaced persons and others affected by conflict should be settled in safe conditions in ways that protect the tenure rights of host communities. Violations of tenure [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
In situations of conflicts, whenever possible or when conflicts cease, States and other parties should ensure that tenure problems are addressed in ways that contribute to gender equality and support durable solutions for those affected. Where restitution is possible and, as appropriate, with the assistance of UNHCR and other relevant agencies, refugees and displaced persons should be assisted in voluntarily, safely and with dignity returning to their place of origin, in line with applicable international standards. Procedures for restitution, rehabilitation and reparation should be [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
Where restitution is not possible, the provision of secure access to alternative land, fisheries and forests and livelihoods for refugees and displaced persons should be negotiated with host communities and other relevant parties to ensure that the resettlement does not jeopardize the livelihoods of others. Special procedures should, where possible, provide the vulnerable, including widows and orphans, with secure access to land, fisheries and forests.
VGGT, Year 2012
Where appropriate, policies and laws should be revised to address pre-existing discrimination as well as discrimination introduced during the conflicts. Where appropriate or required, relevant agencies should be re-established to deliver services necessary for responsible tenure governance.
VGGT, Year 2012
In accordance with the voluntary nature of these Guidelines, States have the responsibility for their implementation, monitoring and evaluation.
VGGT, Year 2012
States are encouraged to set up multi-stakeholder platforms and frameworks at local, national and regional levels or use such existing platforms and frameworks to collaborate on the implementation of these Guidelines; to monitor and evaluate the implementation in their jurisdictions; and to evaluate the impact on improved governance of tenure of land, fisheries and forests, and on improving food security and the progressive realization of the right to adequate food in the context of national food security, and sustainable development. This process should be inclusive, participatory, [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
Development partners, specialized agencies of the United Nations, and regional organizations are encouraged to support voluntary efforts by States to implement these Guidelines, including through South-South cooperation. Such support could include technical cooperation, financial assistance, institutional capacity development, knowledge sharing and exchange of experiences, assistance in developing national tenure policies and transfer of technology.
VGGT, Year 2012
The Committee on World Food Security should be the global forum where all relevant actors learn from each other's experiences, and assess progress toward the implementation of these Guidelines and their relevance, effectiveness and impact. Therefore, the Secretariat of the Committee on World Food Security, in collaboration with the Advisory Group, should report to the Committee on World Food Security on the progress of the implementation of these Guidelines, as well as evaluate their impact and their contribution to the improvement of tenure governance. Such reports should be universal [...]
VGGT, Year 2012
All parties, including civil society organizations and the private sector, are encouraged to use collaborative efforts to promote and implement these Guidelines in accordance with national priorities and contexts. All parties are encouraged to disseminate information on responsible tenure governance in order to improve practices.
VGGT, Year 2012

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